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Town of Newark, White Clay Creek Hundred, New Castle County, Delaware

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The town of Newark, situated in the western part of White Clay Creek Hundred, was settled more than two centuries ago by natives of England, Wales and Scotland. The name is probably taken from the Newark in the old country mentioned by Scott,

"Where Newark's stately tower
Looks out from Yarrow's birchen bower. "

The growth of the village was slow, and nothing important is known concerning it until 1757, when James McMechan and others applied to William Denny, Acting Governor of the three lower counties on the Delaware, for corporate privileges. He referred the matter to King George II., Sovereign of England, who, on April 13, 1758, granted the following, which may be considered its first charter:

"George the Second, by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith and so forth. To all unto whom these presents shall come. Greeting:

"Whereas, our loving subjects, James McMechan, Reynold Howell, William McCrea, William Eynon, William Armstrong and David Wilkin, of our County of New Castle within the government of our counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex, have been at great expense in building houses and making improvements in a piece of land ten miles west of New Castle, at the intersection of two very public roads, the one leading from New Castle to the Crossroads in Chester County, and the other leading from Kent and Sussex to New Garden in order to erect and make a town there, which is called Newark, in the County of New Castle. And, whereas, the said James McMechan, Reynold Howell, William McCrea, William Eynon, William Armstrong and David Wilkin, with divers others, the proprietors of houses and lots of ground in and near the said town, have humbly besought our trusty and well-beloved William Denny, Esq., with our royal approbation Lieutenant-Governor of the counties aforesaid, under the Hon. Thomas Penn and Richard Penn, Esquires, true and absolute proprietors of the province of Pennsylvania and counties aforesaid, for our letters patent under the great seal of the government of the said counties for granting to the present and future inhabitants of the said town or village called Newark, the lowers und privileges of having fairs yearly, and one weekly market there, for the encouragement of trade and better accommodating and supplying the inhabitants thereof with provisions and other necessaries. Therefore, know ye that we, favoring the petition and good purposes of the said James McMechan, Reynold Howell, William McCrea, William Eynon, William Armstrong and David Wilkin, and being willing to encourage trade and industry amongst all our subjects, and to promote, as much as in us lies, their welfare and utility, have of our special grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, granted, and do by these presents for us, our heirs and successors, grant and ordain that the present and future inhabitants of the town aforesaid, called Newark, shall and may from henceforth forever hereafter hold and keep two fairs yearly at the said town called Newark, that is to say, on the third Thursday and Friday in the months of April and October in every year, for the buying and selling of neat cattle, oxen, cows, horses, sheep and hogs and all other goods, wares and commodities, and also a weekly market, to wit: on every Thursday, together with the free liberties, customs, profits, privileges and emoluments to the aforesaid fairs and markets belonging or in anywise appertaining forever. And we do further grant for us, our heirs and successors, to the present and future inhabitants of the said town, and all our liege subjects, that it shall and may be lawful for them to assemble themselves together at the said town called Newark, for holding the aforesaid fairs and weekly market on the respective days and times hereinbefore limited and appointed at such places within the said town as the inhabitants thereof from time to time shall appoint. And wo do hereby further grant and ordain that David Wilkin, of the said town of Newark, shall be the first clerk of the market who (and all succeeding clerks of the market of the said town) shall have assize of bread, wine, beer, wood and other things, and to execute and perform all other things belonging to the office of clerks of the market within the said town. In testimony whereof we have caused these, our letters patent, and the great seal of our said Government to be hereunto affixed. Witness, William Denny, Esq , with our royal approbation Lieutenant Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the province of Pennsylvania and counties aforesaid, this thirteenth day of April, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and fifty-eight, and in the thirty first year of our reign." This is signed by William Denny, and the great seal of the province of Pennsylvania is carefully affixed by a blue ribbon. Outside it is endorsed "Charter"

"William Denny, Esq., Gov'r,} For a fair and market In Newark, in the county of New Castle
To
James McMachen, et al.
"Recording, &c., 5-10,

"Recorded in the Rolls office at New Castle, In Book 8, p. 357, et. Given under my hand and seal this eighth day of June. 1758.
R'd McWilliam, Recorder of Deeds."

In a paper published in 1770 Newark is spoken of as "a suitable and healthy village, not too rich or luxurious, where real learning might be obtained." In 1772 an act was passed establishing two market-days, namely, Tuesday and Friday, and special provisions for regulating the markets. The principal prohibitions were buying or selling provisions elsewhere than in the markets; killing cattle, sheep or hogs in Academy Square or the market-house; selling unwholesome meat; using false weights, and exposing for sale any flesh-meat on Monday or Tuesday in each week, except during June, July and August. The bakers were also required to stamp their bread in such a manner that it could be identified. In the same act the boundaries of the town are thus given:

''And for preventing all uncertainty and disputes that may arise, touching or concerning the limits of the said town of Newark: Be it enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the lines and bound hereinafter mentioned are and always hereafter shall be reported, deemed, allowed and taken to be the boundaries and limits there of That is to say. Beginning at the Junction of the public road near an inn now known by the name of Saint Patrick, and extending thence along the road leading to New London township, in Chester county, to a small stream or run to the mouth thereof, where it empties into White Clay creek; and from thence down the said creek to the most easterly line of the land now of Doctor Samuel Piatt; and by the lines of the said Samuel Piatt, and of land now of James Simpson, to include the said lands within the said town, to the and now of David McMechan, and from the corner of the said James Simpson and, David McMechan their land to the end of James Anderson's lane, and thence by a right line to the place of beginning."

The market-house was situated near the northeast corner of the Academy yard, near the present site of the Washington Hotel. In 1788 John Penn came from Lancaster and passed through this section of the country. In his journal of that year is the following:

"April 17th. The country is pleasantly varied in the ride from this place to Wilmington. At Newark is the most considerable collection of houses I had seen since Lancaster. The Elk is crossed upon the road and the country is plentifully watered here by small streams."

 In 1811 an act was passed making it lawful for James Tilton, George Russell, Levi Boulden, Andrew Gray, Frederick H. Holtzbecker and John Herdman, or their successors, as managers, to carry on a lottery for raising a sum not exceeding four thousand dollars clear of all expenses, to be expended in turn piking or paving the main street in Newark, and for repairing the English schoolhouse and market-house. In 1851 a new charter to lay out the boundaries of the town was granted by the Legislature of Delaware, and John W. Evans, Isaac Ferris, Robert Ochiltree, Benjamin Caulk and John G. Turner were appointed commissioners. The present boundaries of the town, which are the ones laid out by the commissioners, enclose a nearly coffin-shaped tract of land and are as follows:

"Beginning at the comer of lands now of Rathmell Wilson and Daniel Fields is, on the road leading to Port Deposit, thence by the line of the lands of the said Daniel Fields to the center of the road lead log to New London township, in the State of Pennsylvania; thence by a straight line to the southeastern corner of the lot attached to the Methodist church; thence to a point in the west line of Samuel C. Finley's lands, four hundred feet north from the centre of the present road leading through Newark to Wilmington; thence in a straight Una to the southeast corner of lands of Elizabeth Thompson and Albert O. Lewis; thence along said Lewis' line to the southwest comer of George O. Evans' land on the Elkton road; thence in a straight line to the corner of land of Eliza Holtzbecker and John Whann, being in a line of land of the estate of Thomas Blaudy, and from thence to the place of beginning.''

During the Revolutionary War, just previous to the battle of Brandywine, the whole British army passed through Newark. When General Washington moved southward toward York town, a detachment of his troops passed through this town. During the War of the Rebellion thousands of troops were conveyed by rail to the South, and passed a short distance from Newark. The growth of this town, though at no time rapid, was gradual and certain. The business increased from day to day and reached its greatest height in 1887. The destruction of the Dean Woolen-Mill on December 25, 1886, was a severe blow to the interests of the town. Numerous persons were thrown out of employment, and compelled to move away. Despite this, the town is in a prosperous condition. On April 21, 1887, Newark was re-incorporated, and is presided over by a Council of seven men instead of five commissioners, as heretofore. It is impossible to obtain a list of the commissioners previous to 1866.

The following persons have served as Commissioners from that year to the present:

1866.
John Pilling, pres.
John W. Evans.
John F. Williams.
James Armstrong.
W. Reynolds
1867.
John W. Evans, pres.
George Williams.
John Pilling.
James Armstrong.
Wm. Reynolds.
1868.
John Pilling, pres.
Samuel Darlington.
Samuel B. Wright.
Edwin Butterworth.
Goo. W. Williams.
1869.
Geo. O. Evans, pres.
James H. Bay.
John Pilling.
Samuel B. Wright
Walter E. Turner
1870.
W. B. Thornley, pres. 1880.
John Pilling.
L. R. Choate.
Geo. G. Evans.
James U. Bay
1871.
Wm. B Thornley, pres.
George Rambo.
Harry Warren.
Benjamin Caulk.
John Pilling.
1872.
John W. Evans, pres. 1882.
Benjamin Caulk.
W. B. Thornley.
W. F. Walker.
Geo. W. Williams.
1873.
John W. Evans, pres. 1883.
George Rambo.
James H. Ray.
John Pilling.
Geo. W. Williams.
1874.
J. W. Evans, pres. 1884.
Samuel Darlington.
James H. Ray.
John Pilling.
Geo. W. Williams
1876.
John W. Evans, pres. 1885.
James Springer.
James Armstrong.
Nathan Sanders.
Geo. W. Williams.
1876-77.
J. H. Armstrong, pres. 1886.
John W. Evans.
James Springer.
Nathan Sanders.
Geo. W; Williams.
1878.
Wm. Cooch, pres. 1887.
Wm. F. Griffith
John Atkinson.
Nathan Sanders.
Geo. W. Williams.
1879.
John R. Hill, pres.
Wm. F. Griffith.
John Atkinson.
Geo. W, Williams.
Wm. H. Singles
1880
John H. Hill, pres.
E. L. Gilmour.
Joseph B. Lutton.
D. W. Caskey.
Geo. W. Williams
1881
John F. Williamson, pres.
John R. Hill.
James Hossinger.
Joseph B. Lutton.
Geo. W. Williams
1882
John R. Hill, pres.
Theo. F. Armstrong
John Rambo.
James A. Wilson.
Geo. W. Williams
1883
Theo. F. Armstrong, pres.
Miller R. Barton.
Richard Pilling.
James A. Wilson.
Geo. W. Williams.
1884
M. R. Barton, pres.
John R. Hill.
James A. Wilson.
Wm. H. Simpers.
Geo. W. Williams
1885
Samuel M. Donnell, pres.
N. M. Motherall.
A. J. Lily.
Wm. H. Simpers.
Geo. W. Williams
1886
Wm. H. Simpers, pres.
Samuel J. Wright.
N. M. Motherall.
John Rambo.
Geo W. Williams.
1887
Theo. F. Armstrong, pres.
Samuel H. Donnell.
Joseph T. Willis.
M. R. Barton.
G. Fader.
Joseph B. Lutton.
Geo. W. Williams

The population of Newark one thousand three hundred.

The business interests of the represented by the following:

Merchants

J. F. Williamson & Son
Wright & Son
H. B. Wright & Co.
David Stanhope
T. L. Lilley
B. F. Tillum, supt.
Miss Lillian Gray
S. A. J. Wood
Mrs. Kate O'Brien
A. T. Dilworth
F. M. C. Choate
C. C. Choate
D. L. Choate
E. L. Gilmour
M. R Barton
M. & R. Corbett
Wm McKenzie
W. F. Griffith
L. Strickland
Wm. M. Wilson
M. J. Kennet
M. N. Motherall
J. W. Pennington
Dr. A. Lowber
Wm. H. Steel
S. E. Ziegler
M. G. Colmery
J. Dobson
G. Fader
J. W. Parrish
R. Armstrong
J. W. Brown
Wesley B. Hart
Edwin Wilson
Miss M. Pennington
Geo. Dougherty
J. T. Fisher
Blacksmiths
Jos. B. Lutton. Pusey Pemberton Wm. C. Dunbar
Carriage Trimmers
Eugene Ochiltree .. Richard Ennis
Real Estate
.. S. M. Donnell ..
Wheelright
.. Wm. Simpers ..

Schools of Newark

The citizens of Newark have always taken deep interest in educational affairs. This is evidenced by the support given to the Newark Academy, the oldest institution of its kind in the State, and by the fact that it contains the only college in Delaware. Numerous private schools have been patronized by the citizens in the past, some of the most noticeable of which were the seminaries for ladies, conducted by Rev. Samuel Bell and Mrs. Pierce Chamberlain, and the Franklin Seminary. The school opened by Miss Wilson in 1869, and still in existence, received hearty support. In all of these institutions have been found students not only from all parts of Delaware, but also from the adjoining States. On October 11, 1830, the first meeting was held to organize a system of public schools. In the following year a schoolhouse was erected in what was termed District No. 39, and shortly afterwards a school was opened in District No. 41. Both districts are within the limits of the town. The first annual meeting of the School Board was held on October 8, 1832. Both schools were conducted separately until 1873, when they were joined and called United Districts No. 39 and 41. In 1884 a new two-story brick building was erected at a cost of $10,000. This building is divided into four rooms, over which four teachers preside. The number of pupils at the present time is 185. Prof, V. A. Groves is principal and his assistants are Misses Fannie Briscoe, Annie Waters and Sallie Lumb.

Newark Academy. This institution, so famous for learning in the latter half of the eighteenth century, had its origin in a school opened in 1741 by Rev. Francis Allison, pastor of the New London Church, situated in Chester County, Pa. A few years previous to this Rev. Allison, a native of Ireland and graduate of Glasgow, came to this State and entered the family of Gov. John Dickinson as tutor. In 1741 he received a call to minister to the spiritual wants of the New London Church. During this year he received several young men into his family as pupils and schoolmates of Gov. Dickinson's son, and this formed the nucleus of the present Academy. Some years previous to this date the Synod of Philadelphia, representing at that time the Presbyterian Church of America, was impressed with the need of a suitable school for educating and preparing young men for the ministry. In 1739 the Synod determined to found a seminary, and a committee was appointed to proceed to England and solicit funds for this purpose. The war then waging between England and Spain interrupted this project for a time, but it was revived in 1743 and the next year the school started by Rev. Allison was adopted by the Synod as its own. The plan of conducting the school adopted by the Synod was as follows: ''That all persons who please may send their children and have them instructed gratis in the languages, philosophy and divinity. That the school be supported for the present by yearly contributions from the congregations under the Synod's care. That if any funds remain after paying the salaries of the master and tutor they shall be expended in the purchase of books and other necessaries for the school.'' From this arrangement originated an academy, the first of its kind in this country, and the alma mater of many of the leading men of that period. Dr. Allison continued rector until 1752, when he was appointed vice-provost and Professor of Moral Philosophy in the Philadelphia Academy, now the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Allison was succeeded by Rev. Alexander McDowell, who moved the school to Elkton, where it remained for a short time. In 1767 the school was located at Newark, where it now is. In 1769 Thomas and Richard Penn, proprietaries of Pennsylvania and the "Lower Counties," granted a charter to the Academy as an institution of learning. In 1773 Rev. Dr. Ewing and Dr. Hugh Williamson were sent to England and Scotland to secure funds for the Academy. They were successful in their undertaking, and the generous donations of the Penns and others enabled them to erect a substantial building, and formed the basis of the present endowment. On February 17, 1774, Morgan Edwards, of Newark, conveyed to the trustees of Newark Academy a lot of land, on the Main Street of the town, adjoining the lot of Rev. Thomas Reed, containing seven acres and fifty perches. This tract was sold by them to Alexander McBeath, March 26, 1777, for £259 10s. The Academy was in active operation until the latter part of 1777, when, on account of the Revolutionary War then raging, it was closed, and so remained till 1780. During this period the building was used for the manufacturing of shoes for the Continental army under General Washington. The prevalent idea that the Academy was closed during the entire war is dispelled by the fact that the trustees approved and paid a bill of John Bratton's for teaching in 1776 and 1777, and in 1783 granted a gratuity of £50 to William Thomson in consideration of his meritorious conduct in undertaking the employment of teaching " for near three years past under many discouragements." Governor Thomas McKean, in a letter to General Washington dated Newark, Delaware, October 8, 1777, says, ''On my arrival, I found that all the records and public papers of the county of New Castle and every shilling of the public money, together with the fund belonging to the trustees of Newark Academy, &c., had been captured at Wilmington." The minutes of the trustees of the Academy during and previous to the Revolutionary War, by some misfortune, were lost. The first entry in the new minute book procured in 1783 is as follows:

''Wilmington, 6 Jane, 1783.
''In consequence of previous notice the Trustees of the Academy of Newark met at this place:

''Present:
"Rev. Dr. John Ewing, Rev. William McKennan. Rev. Thomas Read, Mr. John McKinly, General Sam'l Patterson, Mr. James Mease, Mr. John Thomson.
"Absent:
''Rev. Mat. Wilson, Rev. Joseph Montgomery, Mr. Chas. Thomson, Hon. Thos. McKean, Hon. John Evans.

''Dr. Ewing laid before the Board an account of the money belonging to the fund in his hands, which is as follows:
Continental Certificates, for $1200, dated March 27, 1777, £450
Continental Certificates for $2000, dated 8th November, 1779, equal in specie, £31 4s. 2d.
Continental Certificates for $3500, of different dates, equal in specie to £36 10s. l½d.
Dr. Rash's bond, £200 principal, about ten years interest, about £300
Dr. Warren's bond, £113 principal, with interest £200
Dr. Francis Alison's bond, £50 principal, with interest £80
Legacy from Samuel Scott's estate (supposed), £25
Legacy from James Gardner's estate (supposed), £100
Due in part of a house sold £1000, Continental money, September, 1779, equal to £52
Total £1275 4s. 3d

''Ordered that the Certificates be delivered to the treasurer, General Patterson.

''The business of the academy having been interrupted some years by the war, the trustees now resolve to carry it on as extensively as their circumstances will admit, and there for, for the present, agree to employ in the capacity of their principal teacher, Mr. William Thomson, till the next meeting. His excellency N. Van Dyke, the Reverend Messrs. James Latta and John McCreary, the Honorable James Lattimer and Colonel Richard Cantwell were unanimously elected Trustees, and General Patterson is requested to acquaint them with the same. Dr. Ewing is appointed to have it published in the Pennsylvania newspapers, that the Newark Academy is revived, and will be carried on as formerly."

Despite the losses incurred during the war, in 1785, there were in the treasury $6700.40. Mr. Thomson continued to be the principal of the Academy until 1794. From this date till 1811, Mr. Johnston tilled the position. During his administration the Academy was not prosperous, and was closed from 1796 to 1799. In 1811 he was removed, and Rev. Andrew K. Russell appointed principal. Under him, the Academy vastly improved, and was in prosperous circumstances. The intention of organizing a college in Newark culminated in 1834, and Newark Academy was merged into Newark College (now Delaware College). In January, 1847, a deed of the buildings, etc., was made by the trustees of the Academy to the trustees of Delaware College.1 The two schools were united until 1869, when the trustees of Delaware College deeded back to the trustees of Newark Academy the property conveyed to them in 1847. The surviving trustee, Hon. Willard Hall and Wm. T. Read, in 1869 elected John W. Evans, Rathmel Wilson, James H. Ray, George G. Kerr, W. E. Turner, William Reynolds, Edward R. Wilson, David J. Murphey, George G. Evans and Charles W. Blandy, trustees to fill the vacancies in the board. Professor E. D. Porter was appointed principal, and conducted the school with varied success, generally having a fair number of students. In 1873, Miss Hannah Chamberlain was elected principal, and females were admitted. Miss Chamberlain proved an efficient teacher. She was succeeded 1877 by Rev. J. L. Polk, under whose management the Academy was very prosperous. Prof. Albert N. Raub, the present principal, has met with marked success in his plan of conducting the school, and the Academy of Newark is in a prosperous condition, and ranks very high as an institution of learning. The influence exerted by this institution since its organization has been very healthy and beneficial, and has been felt, not only in Delaware, but also in the adjoining States. Among the names of the trustees of this Academy are found men celebrated in their day for devotion to religion, education and the welfare of the country. It is estimated that five thousand persons have been educated within the walls of the Academy, most of whom have become good and useful citizens. Among the early students of the Academy after it was located at Newark were George Duffield, D.D., associate chaplain of Congress with Bishop White; Alexander McWhorter, D.D., an eminent Presbyterian clergyman; Eward Miller, M.D., an eminent physician and Professor of Practice of Physic in the University of New York. Among the alumni of the Academy are found such men as Charles Thomson, secretary of the First Congress; Rev. Dr. John Ewing, provost of the University of Pennsylvania; Thomas McKean, Governor of Pennsylvania, and many others of equal merit known throughout the entire Union.

The following is a list of the principals from the opening of the school to the present time: Rev. Dr. Allison, Rev. Alexander McDowell, Mr. William Thompson, Mr. Johnstone, Rev. John Waugh, Rev. Francis Hindman. Rev. A. E. Russell, Mr. Thomas Madden, Mr. N. Z. Graves, Professor Wm. S. F. Graham, Mr. W. W. Ferris, Rev. Matthew Meiggs, Mr. J. W. Weston, Rev. Whitman Peck, Professor E. D. Porter, Miss Hannah Chamberlain, Joseph L. Polk and Albert N. Raub.

Corps of Instructors, Albert N. Raub, Principal; Assistants, Professor Edgar L. Raub, Miss Gertrude M. Bridgman and Miss Martha Chamberlain; Teachers of Music, Miss Georgia Benneson and Miss Nora A. Raub.

Churches

Newark M. E. Church. Previous to 1812 the Methodists of Newark held their meetings in private families, and occasionally in the Academy building. In that year an organization was effected and a church erected at the present location of the Methodist Cemetery, on land then the property of Isaac Tyson.

On April 8, 1813, Samuel Brumley, Abraham 8. Keagy, John Stoops, William Silver, Abraham Egbert, Jacob Tyson, Isaac Tyson and Abraham Heapy were elected trustees. On the same day they purchased of Isaac Tyson a half-acre of land on condition ''that they shall keep and maintain, in good order and repair, the house now erected and built on the same, and to be finished for the use of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in the United States of America."

This was used as a house of worship until 1851, when, through the efforts of John F. Williamson, and a few other active members, a new building was erected on Main Street, at a cost of five thousand dollars. In 1861 this building was burned down, and services were then held in the Village Presbyterian Church. In the spring of the following year the erection of the present edifice was begun on the same location, but was not completed until the fall of 1864. This is a commodious two-story brick building, and cost ten thousand dollars. The dedication sermon was preached in January, 1865, by Rev. Pennell Combs.

The church at present, is in a prosperous condition. The following ministers have been stationed here since 1849: Rev. C. J. Crouch, Rev. 8. Townsend, Rev. James L. Houston, Rev. James Flannery, Rev. Benjamin F. Price, Rev. George W. Leibrandt, Rev. Joseph Aspril, Rev. George Quigley, Rev. James A. Brindle, Rev. M. A. Day, Rev. John Shields, Rev. C. F. Sheppard, Rev. Benjamin T. String, Rev. Geo. A. Phoebus, Rev. William H. Hutchins, Rev. John France, Rev. Thomas H. Haynes, Rev. Henry Colclazer and Rev. C. W. Prettyman. Trustees at present: W. S. Mote, E. S. Gilmor, William M. Gamble, W. A. Woodrow, S. R. Hoffecker, John Pilling and James Lyle.

Newark Presbyterian Church, From 1839 to 1860 there were two Presbyterian Churches in Newark, the one known as the Village Church and the other the First Presbyterian Church of Newark. The former, or New School, was organized in 1835, with a membership of sixteen. This congregation met in the school-room of Rev. Samuel Bell, who had charge of a female seminary at that time. In 1843 it was decided to erect a church, the comer-stone of which was laid on September 25th, of that year. The building was completed the following year, and dedicated March 28th, with appropriate ceremonies.

Dr. Gilbert, then president of Newark College, was the first pastor. From this date the church enjoyed a season of prosperity. Dr. Gilbert was succeeded by Rev. J. P. Wilson in October, 1847, and he officiated until the end of 1849. During this period twenty-five persons were added to the church-roll. Dr. Wilson was followed in regular order by Revs. George Foote, Professor Graham, John W. Elliott, Henry A. Barnes, Nicholas Patterson, V. D. Collins, W. A. Crawford, Ellis J. Newlin and Mr. Peck. In 1860 the two churches united, and have since worshipped together. The church building was sold to the Catholics. The First Presbyterian, or Old School, was organized in August, 1839, by a committee of New Castle Presbytery. The congregation, numbering nine members, was composed of persons who previously worshipped at White Clay Creek and Head of Christiana Churches. Rev. Alexander Heberton for a short time preached as stated supply. He was followed by Rev. Elijah Wilson, who officiated from June, 1842, till 1846. During his pastorate the church building was erected. During the following seven years the church was closed, with the exception of an occasional service. In December, 1853, Rev. James L. Vallandingham accepted the charge, in connection with the churches at White Clay Creek, and Head of Christiana. He resigned in 1860. In that year the two branches were united, and Rev. Sterling M. Gait was chosen pastor. After his death, in 1865 James Hamilton ministered to the church until 1870, when ill health compelled him to resign. During his pastorate the old church building was torn down, and preparations made for the erection of a new edifice. For a few months Rev. Michael Burdett filled the pulpit. In 1871 Rev. George J. Porter was elected pastor. The new building was completed and dedicated June 13, 1872. The church b now in a flourishing condition, and numbers over a hundred members.

The Christian Church was organized in 1884. As yet they have erected no church edifice. Their first pastor, Rev. T. B. Knowles, began his ministrations in Newark in March, 1887, and still labors there.

St. Patrick R. C. Church. In 1866 a Catholic Church was organized at Newark, and the Village Church, erected by the New School Presbyterians, was purchased for a meeting-house. The church was dedicated in that year by Bishop O'Hara. The congregation at that time numbered about three hundred communicants. The first priest in charge was Father Blake. He was succeeded by Father William Dol-lard. Father Peter Donaghy, Father John A. Lyons. During Father Lyons' priesthood a new two-story brick edifice, sixty by eighty feet, was erected, at a cost of twenty thousand dollars. The successor of Father Lyons is Father J. D. Cary, the present priest. During the past year many members of this church have moved from the town. There are at present about two hundred communicants.

St. Thomas' Protestant Episcopal Church was erected in 1843, and dedicated to the worship of God, on February 25, 1845, by the Rt. Rev. Alfred Lee, D. D., LL.D., bishop of the diocese. The first services were held August 1, 1842, at which time the congregation was organized. The vestrymen were Thomas Blandy, Benjamin Gibbs, William S. Wilson, William Cooch and James S. Martin. The church edifice was erected at a cost of about $4000. Rev. Walter E. Franklin was the first rector. The parish has about seventy-five communicants. The present rector is Rev. George M. Bond.

St. John's A. U. M. P. Church, The first meeting of the congregation of this church was held in 1855, in a log house situated where the present church stands. In 1866 it was decided to erect an edifice, which was completed in 1867^ at a cost of $1100. The number of members has increased from sixteen to forty-two, the present membership. The following ministers have officiated: Revs. Solomon Benson, Daniel Russell, John Morris, N. E. Collins, Benj. Scott, Moses Chippey, Edward H. Chippey, J. J. Broadman.

Manafacturies

The Foundry. In 1851 a foundry was built by Dr. Palmer Chamberlain, on a site nearly opposite the Deer Park Hotel. In 1854 C. & H. P. R Blandy purchased the plant and conducted the business until 1875, when Lewis L. Allen became the proprietor. Allen was the proprietor for eleven years, and then Edward R. Wilson, the present owner, purchased it. The business was never carried on very extensively and was unprofitable. Since 1886 nothing at all has been manufactured in the foundry.

In 1886, John A. Bedwell established a manufactory in the limits of Newark, in a building erected for a sash-factory. Mr. Bedwell manufactures hammocks and gauze goods of every description. There are ten looms in the factory and fifteen employees are required to operate them. The factory has a capacity of four hundred hammocks per day. The products of this manufactory are shipped to New York.

Brick-Yard, In 1882 the Newark Brick Company commenced manufacturing bricks within the boundaries of Newark. Their annual production amounted to one and a half millions of bricks per year. Twelve men were employed. Two years later the brick-yard was purchased by A. J. Hayland & Co. who ran it for a year. Johnson & McMichael are the present owners and proprietors. They have in their employ six workmen, and manufacture annually five hundred thousand common bricks. The clay bank is in close proximity to the yard.

In 1885 Jacob Casho and C. Mendenhall began the manufacture of road-machines. The business was carried on for a year, during which time twenty-six machines were made. The inability to sell the machine led to the abandonment of its manufacture.

In 1831 Robt. M. and William B. Armstrong conveyed to Thos. B. Armstrong a tannery located in Newark. In 1886 Alexander Walker purchased the tannery and conducted the business until 1852, when he failed. The tannery has since been torn down.

Hotels

St. Patrick, It is impossible to ascertain the exact date of the erection of this hotel, or by whom it was built. In 1750 John Pritchard was the landlord and owner. When Mason and Dixon, with their corps of assistants, made their surveys in 1764, St Patrick's Inn was their headquarters. In describing the boundaries of the town of Newark in 1772, the St. Patrick's Inn is mentioned. The hotel remained in the Pritchard family for nearly a century, being owned respectively by John, Tobias and John, and was often called Pritehard's Hotel. In 1848 James S. Martin purchased the property, and in 1851 tore down the building and erected a four-story brick hotel, sixty by forty, and called it the Deer Park Hotel. This hotel has been owned successively by Jacob De Haven, J. Marshall Harlan, Alexander A. Laws, Colonel Joshua Clayton and John E. Lewis the present owner. The hotel is successfully managed by Mr. Lewis.

Newark Hotel The date of the erection of this hotel or the names of the earliest proprietors cannot be definitely ascertained. The earliest accurate information in regard to it is that a license was granted to Joseph Hossinger in May, 1797, to keep a hotel in Newark, and some of the oldest citizens remember hearing the hotel called Hossinger's Tavern. The hotel was successively owned by John Herdman (who was proprietor in 1828), John W. Choate, and in 1880 was purchased by the Newark Hall Company and torn down. The present Exchange building stands on the site occupied by this hotel. Tradition says that General Washington passed a night within its walls during the Revolutionary War.

Washington Hotel. This building was erected about 1825 by a Mr. Betts. He was proprietor until 1838, when he sold it to Mr. Blandy, who built an addition to it and remodeled the part already built. The next and present owner is James A. Wilson.

Post Office

The post-office at Newark was established at a very early date, which cannot be accurately ascertained. The present office is in the Exchange building. The following are the postmasters from 1840 to the present time: Thomas Benneson, Mathew Maclain, James L. Miles, Jonathan Dreunen, John Miller, S. R. Choate.

Associations

The Newark Building and Loan Association was instituted in 1867. The association is conducted on the serial plan and is in a very prosperous condition. This organization has been of great assistance in building up and improving the town. The present officers are: President, E. S. Gilmour; Vice-President, Joseph Dean; Treasurer, Miller R. Barton; Secretary, George W. Williams.

The Newark Library Association was organized in October, 1878. The library now contains six hundred volumes of choice books of every description. Additions are being constantly made of the latest literary works of merit. Shortly after its organization there were eighty members, but at present only fifty are in good standing. The library is kept in the store-room of William M. Wilson, and is under the supervision of Wilbur Wilson, librarian. The officers are: President, Joseph Dean; Secretary, Miss Sue Evans; Treasurer, Dr. H. G. M. Kollock; Librarian, Wilbur Wilson.

Telephone, W. A. Woodrow in 1882 opened a telephone office to communicate with Wilmington. Only one wire was then in use. In the following year Miss Lilian Gray took charge of the office and in 1884 secured seven subscribers. From that time the office has been known as the Telephone Exchange. At the present time there are twelve wires, ten of which are used and by means of which communication can be held with all parts of Wilmington.

National Bank of Newark. The Bank of Newark was charted as a State Bank with a capital of fifty thousand dollars. Daniel Thompson was the first president of it. James L. Martin, Frederick A. Curtis, William McClelland, James L. Miles, Benjamin Caulk, John Miller, Daniel Thompson, Solomon Leeche and Joseph Hossinger were appointed commissioners to open the books, secure subscriptions for stock and to attend to the general business incident to its opening. In 1864 it was converted into a National Bank. The capital stock is fifty thousand dollars, and the surplus twenty-six thousand dollars. The present officers are: President, Joel Thompson; Cashier, George W. Lindsey; Teller, George W. Williams.

Societies

Red Men. A lodge of Red Men was instituted in this town in 1885. The number of members at that time was sixteen. The lodge has been prosperous and gradually increased in numbers till there are now forty-three. The organization is known as Minnehaha Tribe, No. 23, I. O. R. M. The present officers are: Sachem, S. Raymond Choate; Senior Sachem, George R. Powell; Junior Sachem, Frank M. Smith; Keeper of Records, S. I. Sweet; Keeper of Wampum, J. W. Miller; W. P., T. A. Mullen.

Masons, In the minutes of the Newark Academy of 1808 mention is made of a petition of ''Lodge No. 96, of Masons," for use of the academy, which was not granted. Nothing definite can be learned of this organization. In 1816 Hiram Lodge, No. 3, was Instituted and it continued till 1825. In January, 1870, Hiram Lodge, No. 26, A. F. A. M., was organized. The charter members were John France, Walter E. Turner, Edward D. Porter, John W. Evans, Charles C. King and James H. Ray. At the close of that year there were sixteen members. The lodge is in a prosperous condition and numbers fifty-two members. The officers at the present time are: M., E. S. Gilmour; S. W., W. H. Simpers; J. W., Dr. Frank L. Springer; Treasurer, John O. Shivler; Secretary, S. M. Donnell.

Knights of Pythias, Osceola Lodge, No, 5, K. of P., was organized on June 6, 1868. The number of members at that time was sixteen. During this year and the following the society was in a flourishing condition and numbered eighty members. Since that time it has gradually diminished and now there are but eighteen members. The following are the present officers: C. C, James Morris; V. O., George Ferguson; Prelate, Isaac Wainwright, M. of E., J. C. Shivler; M. of F., William B. Kearns; K. of R. and S., Paul Gillis; M. at A., Nathan Davis.

Oriental Lodge, No. 12, I. O. O. F. was instituted at Newark February 11, 1847. Robert Fulton, Robert E. Payne, A. C. Alexander, John Hamilton and Hiram Austin were the charter members. At the termination of that year there were twenty members. A hall was built by this order in 1850 and is still owned and used for lodge purposes. Since its organization the order has been very prosperous and now numbers ninety-two members. The present officers are; N. G., William Gamble; V. G., Clayton C. Choate; R. S., Joseph T. Willis; Treasurer, William H. Simpers; P. S. George W. Williams.

Good Templars, Newark Lodge, No, 3, Independent Order of Good Templars of Newark, Delaware, was organized on the 8th day of March, 1883, in the Methodist Episcopal Church of aforesaid town, and composed of twenty-one members. Henry W. Morrow, of Wilmington, Sr. P. G. T. C, and a Mr. Hargraves, of Philadelphia, instituted the lodge. During the four years nearly two hundred accessions have been made. Present membership about sixty members. Lodge meets on Saturday evening in Red Men's Hall, Main Street.

Ancient Order of United Workmen, Anchor Lodge, No. 4, A. O. U. W. was organized and instituted in September 1881. The membership for the first year numbered twenty-three. Many of this order have recently removed from the town. At present there are thirty-five members. The officers of the society are: Master Workman, Jas. A. Wilson; Foreman, William H. Stephens; Overseer, William M. Gamble; Recorder, S. R. Choate; Receiver, Dr. H. G. M. Kollock; Financier, E. S. Gilmour.

Newark Grange, No, 5, P. of H, was instituted April 6, 1874. In that year a store was opened by this association in the room now occupied by Dr. H. G. M. Kol-lock. This was shortly afterwards discontinued and a cooperative store opened, which occupies at present a portion of the Exchange building and is under the superintendence of B. F. Tillum. The organization has rapidly increased in numbers and there are now seventy-five members as against the original twelve charter members. At present the Grange is officered by the following persons: Master, James Hossinger; Overseer, Thomas Brackin; Steward, James R. Deighton; Assistant Steward, John McKane; Lecturer, W. L. Skinner; Chaplain, John McKeonan; Treasurer, Samuel Lindsey; Secretary, J. H. Clark; Gate Keeper, William Rankin; Ceres, Mrs. E. E. Steel; Pomona, Mrs. A. P. Cannon; Flora, Mrs. A. B. Walton; Lady Assistant Steward, Miss F. J. Dean.

Colored Lodges. Barnes Lodge, No, 1682, G. U. O. of O. F. was organized July 19, 1875, with a membership of forty-one. The number of members at present is forty-two.

Mt. Carmel Lodge, No, 14, A. F. A. Y. M. was instituted August 7, 1876. The membership in that year numbered forty-two. The lodge now numbers thirty-five members.

New Castle County

Source: History of Delaware, 1609-1888, Volume I, by J. Thomas Scharf, L. J. Richards & Company, Philadelphia, 1888.

 
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