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Christina Hundred, New Castle County, Delaware

Early Settlements Roads Manufacturing
Business Interests Lodges Religious Interests
Taxable Persons, 1787 .. Newport

This division borders on the Pennsylvania line, and extends to the Christiana Creek, comprising that part of the county which lies between Brandywine and Red Clay Creeks. It thus embraces the hills which border those precipitous streams, causing its general surface to be elevated and broken, excepting along the Christiana, where it expands into low lands, a small portion being of a marshy nature. The soil is generally fertile, and many excellent farms abound, some having costly buildings. There are also a number of country homes, with extensive grounds and other improvements, to enhance the appearance of a naturally attractive country, making this one of the most pleasant sections.

On account of their situation, much of the history of the hundred is blended with that of Newport and Wilmington, but separate interests are detailed in the following pages.

A number of land grants were made in the territory now comprised in Christiana Hundred soon after the English obtained possession of the country. A large tract of land lying between Christiana and Mill Creeks, extending from the mouth of the latter nearly to where Newport now is, and north to Mill Creek, containing about one thousand two hundred acres, was granted by Governor Francis Lovelace,


Old Richardson House, (Now Owned By H. C. Conrad.)

September 1, 1669, to Andries Andersen, Seneca Broor and Gysbert Walraven. Not long after this Andersen died, leaving his property to his widow and five children. The other two-thirds soon after passed to Arnoldus De Lagrange and others. In 1688 the whole tract was owned by De Lagrange, Walraven and Broor Sinnexsen, who had married the widow of Andersen. In April of that year this tract was divided, but they kept in common a tract of eighteen acres of mill land, on which, before 1687, they built a mill, as shown in the agreement following:
" This may certifie that, according to agreement of Arnoldus De Lagrange, Broor Sinnexsen and Gysbert Wal-raven, there is layd out for a mill a certain tract of land, situate, lying and being on ye south side of a branch of Christiana Creek, commonly called Little Falls Creek," eighteen acres surveyed 7th of Second Month, 1684. This mill was bought of the different owners, in 1723 and 1726, by John Richardson, who had begun buying lands soon after the division in 1683. In August, 1687, he purchased the Walraven tract of one hundred and ninety-five acres, and in 1723 the Richardsons built a large stone house on it. Later, another large stone house was built on the same tract, nearer the mill. It was erected by Richard Richardson in 1765, and is located on the Newport turnpike, about one-half mile from the present limits of the city of Wilmington. The land on which it stands was part of the "old mill tract," granted to three of the original Swedish settlers, named Broor Sinnexson, Gysbert Walraven and Arnoldus De Lagrange, in the year 1683. The whole of the mill tract, comprising about eighteen acres, together with the adjoining property on the south, was owned by John Richardson at the time of his death, in the year 1755; and he by will devised "the mill lands and mill, and the house and improvements which is thereupon," to his son, Richard Richardson, who at that time was a bachelor of thirty-five years. Ten years after, in 1765, he built the house, as shown above, and the year following was married to Sarah Tatnall, daughter of Edward Tatnall, a prosperous miller on the Brandywine. The house is built of stone quarried presumably on the premises, or taken from the bed of Mill Creek, a few hundred yards away. The wood used in its construction was doubtless found near at hand, as the adjoining farm land was for many years afterward covered with the best quality of timber. At the time it was built no house in the neighborhood equaled it in size or pretensions. It is related that the residents of Newport, at that time a village of more importance than Wilmington, would come on foot to see the "big house on the hill," deeming it a wonderful production of the artisan's skill. The interior of the house is marked by a spacious hallway, high ceilings, open fire-places in every room, and chimneys that are marvels of strength. The exterior is the same as when built, and for one hundred and twenty-two years no change has marred its original construction either on the exterior or interior. R. Richardson died in 1797, and bequeathed the property to his son Joseph, the oldest of his seven children. Joseph Richardson owned and occupied it during his lifetime, and at his death, in 1833, it descended to his seven children, he having made no will. In 1837 Joseph's heirs joined in a deed of the property to Samuel Richardson, the oldest son of Joseph, and Samuel owned and occupied it until his death, when by will it was devised to Joseph S. Richardson, the only son of Samuel Richardson. In 1887 the house, with fourteen acres of land, was purchased by Henry C. Conrad, Esq., of Wilmington, who is now making some additions and improvements in the property, with a view of making it his home in the near future. As far as known, the place has never had a local name, but Mr. Conrad has recently christened it "Glynrich."

The descendants of John Richardson continued to live here, and in 1785 re-built the mill, which is still standing. Much of the land acquired in the last century is still owned by the Richardson family, but part of the mill tract became the property of Henry C. Conrad.

Early Settlements

In the division of the above tract, in 1683, De Lagrange Walraven took one hundred and eighty-one acres, lying on the west side of the tract, adjoining lands of Conrad Constantine, on which Newport was later built. He also had a tract lying near the mouth of Mill Creek.

Guysbert Walraven had his home lot on the creek, containing twenty-nine acres, east of De Lagrange, now owned by the Latimers, and on which the old Walraven house still stands. He also had one hundred and ninety-five acres of land lying on Mill Creek, above Sinnexsen and south of the mill lands, which were in a neck; and also thirty acres of marsh land, at the junction of the two creeks.

Broor Sinnexsen, who married the widow of Andries Andersen, was instructed by the court that he should enjoy the third part of the estate, educate the minors and when they were of age should pay each five hundred guilders.

These minors were Christian, Andreas, James, Evart and Peter, all of whom attained their majority before 1796.

Sinnexsen bequeathed part of his property to his son, James, and after his death, in 1708, the remainder of the estate passed to his wife, Sophia, for life, and after her death to his sons, Broor, John and James.

The Sinnexsen lands are mostly owned, at present, by the Lynam family. The last of the name Sinnexsen died a few years ago, and was known as Sinnex.

Conrad Constantine, in 1683, was in possession of a tract of land containing six hundred and thirty acres, lying on Christiana Creek, west of the large tract of De Lagrange, Walraven and Sinnexsen. One hundred acres of it passed to Henry Parker, who, April 26, 1731, sold it to John Justis, it being on the east side of Rainbow Run. The rest of the tract remained in the hands of the Constantines until after 1740.

Arnoldus De Lagrange had surveyed to him, in 1684, on the north side of Christiana Creek, and adjoining the lands of Sinnexsen, two hundred and fifty acres, and on a warrant bearing date 21st of Twelfth Mouth, 1682, four hundred acres on Christiana Creek.

July 29, 1685, on a warrant, there was "layd out for Neal Laerson's friend "a tract of land of eight hundred acres, on the north side of Red Clay Creek, called "Oak Hill" and for Neils Laerson. March 12, 1684, nine hundred and thirty-six acres.

January 4, 1702, there was laid out for Jacob and Hendrick Hendrickson a tract of three hundred acres, called "Jacob's Possession," on the south side of the Brandy wine, bounded south by Adam Stidman's land, called "Adam's Garden" north by land of Mathias Defosse's and by Squirrel Creek, which had been taken up March 12, 1684.

On the Brandy wine, between Rattlesnake Run and Stony Run, a tract of two hundred and sixty-eight acres was resurveyed, on a warrant, April 19, 1744, for Andrew Hendrickson, Sr., and Andrew Hendrickson, Jr.

The upper part of the hundred was included in the manors of the Penns, and patents were granted for lands lying therein after 1684.

Among the principal ones were the following: In Rockland Manor, William Gregg was granted a warrant, January 26, 1684, for four hundred acres ef land, which was surveyed May 11, 1685, and April 23, 1692, was divided by Henry Hollingsworth between John and Richard Gregg, sons of William. It was adjoining lands of Matthias Defosse, on Squirrel Creek. Richard Gregg had in the division one hundred and fifty acres. John Gregg had a warrant dated August 13, 1734, for a tract of two hundred and fifty acres of land at the mouth of Squirrel Creek, a branch of the Brandywine.

Thomas Hollingsworth received warrants for several tracts of land as follows: February 4, 1701, eight hundred and eighteen acres; May 20, 1703, two hundred acres; Samuel Hollingsworth, January 27, 1685, three hundred acres. The last mentioned tract was released to Thomas Hollingsworth and was confirmed by patent May 7, 1705.

On the 20th of May, 1685, a warrant was granted to John Gregg for two hundred acres and confirmed by patent February 18, 1693. Gregg sold the tract to Samuel Underwood, Sr., who, by will, June 11, 1722, conveyed fifty acres on the east end to his son Samuel. The executor sold part to John Gregg, who, February 18, 1733, sold to Jonathan Strange fifty acres, who, April 26, 1744, received warrant for fifty-one acres adjoining his own land and land of Samuel and John Dennis, which was patented May 3, 1744. Upon this land, lying on the Brandywine and a small run, he erected a fulling-mill, grist-mill, saw-mill and other buildings. January 29, 1738, Strange sold to John Smith three acres of the land, which was known as "ye sawmill lands," together with" ye grist-mill, saw-mills, bolting-mills, mill-races, dams, ponds, wheels, flood-gates, waste-gates, ditches, etc., together with right to make dam above Jonathan Strangers fulling-mills as they now stand."

At a later period John Smith owned considerable land in that part of the hundred. The greater portion of the manor lands along the Brandy wine have passed into the possession of the Du Pouts, and have been brought into a high state of cultivation.

Anthony Burgess took out a warrant April 15, 1686, for three hundred acres, which was called "Cole Harbour," in the vicinity of Newport.

On the 8th of May, 1678, a warrant was issued to Tyman Stidham for one hundred acres, for which a warrant for resurvey was granted April 19, 1744, when the tract by divers conveyances had been in-creased to two hundred and sixty- eight acres. Among the later warrants was one granted by the proprietor, March 25, 1755, to Richard Baker, for two hundred acres of land on the road which, in 1811, became the Wilmington and Kennett Turnpike. William Killen, the deputy surveyor, made the following note concerning the property: " It lies on the great road leading from Wilmington to Kennett, 8 miles distant, from said towne, and is generally poor stony ground; better than one-half is cleared, with a good stone house, two-story high thereon. Joshua Baker, father of the aforesaid Richard, died possessed of the premises, leaving issue nine children, all of whom except three that are absent, claim a right in the same."

The Hollingsworth family owned a large tract of land near the Pennsylvania line, and near Hollingsworth Ford one of the members, Joseph, built a small mill to turn out bowls and wooden-ware and to spin wire. The power was abandoned before 1800, and forty years later a poplar tree two and a half feet in diameter was growing on the site of the mill. Joseph Hollingsworth divided his land among three sons, Thomas, Amor and Isaac. The latter built a house in 1769 of yellow poplar plank, four inches in thickness, which is still standing, as the homestead of Henry Swayne. It became the property of Joel Swayne in 1821, and was one of the first Hollingsworth tracts that passed out of the family; but since that time all their lands have been sold and none of that name remain. The old Gregg lands have also passed to other ownerships. A mansion built in 1749 of stone, with walls two feet in thickness, was retained by the family many years, but the place has become one of the Du Pont farms, and but one direct descendant remains near the place of nativity.

George Chandler immigrated to America in 1687 and settled on a tract of land, which has remained in possession of the family ever since it was deeded to it. In 1887 the old homestead was owned by Jesse Chandler, a descendant of a later generation, and many others of the same lineage were honored citizens of the hundred. The J. Poulson Chandler farm has also passed through the hands of several generations. The fine brick mansion on it was built in 1805, by Joseph and Benjamin Chandler, and is not as near the highway as was the old house, which has been removed. Above this tract of land was the home of Alphonso Kirk, the grandfather of Caleb Kirk, the manufacturer. The former owns the land on which stands the Friends' Meeting-house, near Centerville. One of his sons, William, became a citizen of Chester County, Pa., and from his family have descended many of the prominent people of that section. The name is not perpetuated in Christiana Hundred.

South of Centerville, William Dixon made notable improvements, soon after the settlement of the Chandlers, and his descendants later built a mill in that section, which is still standing. Alexander H. Dixon (a son of William of a later generation, born in 1804), is a resident of Centerville. The homestead has become the property of others. But very little of the foregoing lands can be traced to the original proprietors in an unbroken succession of family ownership. Nearer the Christiana Creek the Crans, Armstrong and Cranston families have for many years been amongst the most prominent and useful citizens of the hundred.

The following is ''A List of the Taxable Persons and Estates in Christiana Hundred, taken by Robert Hamilton, Col'r of S'd Hundred, September 28, 1787:"1

Roads

The hundred is well supplied with highways and railroads, some of the former dating from the settlement of the country, though somewhat modified as to their course in later years. In 1783 the road from Garrett's to the Hockessin meeting-house was laid out, and the road from the Brandy wine to intersect this was located in 1795. Prior to this time the roads which afterwards became turnpikes were located, excepting the modification of their course when they became improved highways The Kennett pike was built in 1812, and the Lancaster pike at a later period, both being excellent roads before railways removed the necessity for their use for other than local travel. In 1887 they were practically common highways, many of the tollgates having been removed.

The Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad was built through the hundred in 1831, and later, the Wilmington and Northern, in 1869 and 1870, the Wilmington and Western in 1872, and the Baltimore and Ohio in 1886. The last two roads are operated as one system, thus affording extended facilities for the many industrial establishments which have been located in the hundred on the opposite banks of the Brandywine and Bed Clay Creeks. Both streams have been well spanned by bridges, the most important ones having been built on the Brandywine, at Smith's Ford, in 1816; at Young & Kirk's Ford, in 1818; Manufacturers Bridge, in 1832; on the Red Clay, at Philip's Mill, after 1802; and at other points on the same stream at later periods. Some of these were replaced by very substantial structures and are more fully noted elsewhere.

Manufacturing Interests

In 1804 the following industries were reported in the hundred, including those of Newport as well as some at Wilmington:

onah Anderson, hatter-shop
Jacob Anderson, large apple-orchard
James Bryan, wharf and store
Robert Bratten, smith-shop
Samuel and David Bush, wharf and store
Hadden A Chandler, tavern
Samuel Canby, two grist-mills
Morton Canby, barley-mill
William Dixon, stone grist-mill
Bumford Dawes, grist and saw-mill
E. I. du Pont, powder-works
Vincent Gilpin stone mill
Fisher, Gilpin & Co., stone paper-mill
Samuel Graves, saw-mill
Capt. Henry Geddes, brick still-house
Levi Garrett, snuff-mill
H. G. Garrett, paper-mill
John Hedge, rope-walk
William Hemphill, wharf and stores
Job Harvey, grist-mill
Captain James Jeffries, grist-mill
William Kirk, brick-kiln
Caleb Kirk, grist, saw and fulling mills
James Latimer & Co., wharf and store
Joshua Lobb, grist-mill
John Morton, two grist-mills
Thomas Meredith, tan-yard
David McCalmont, wharf and store
James Philips, old grist-mill and saw-mill
Phoebe Pemberton, grist and saw-mill
John Richardson, grist and saw-mill
John Smith, tan-yard
Jonas H. Starr, tan-yard
Thomas Springer, tavern
Joseph Shipley, grist-mill
William Seal, tan-yard
Joseph Wilkinson, tan-yard
Francis Way, malt-house
John Worthington, tavern
George Wetzel, wharf and shops
John Warner, wharf and store
William Wilson, saw-mill

Many of these properties changed ownership in the course of the next two decades and others fell into disuse. In 1822 the principal interests in the hundred were owned by the following:

Joseph Bringhurst, cotton factory
Brandy wine, Mill Seat Company.
Caleb Baldwin's Est., air furnace
David Bush, wharf, store and lumberyard
John Cummings Est., grist-mill
Samuel Canby, grist-mill
John Dixon's Est., wharf and store
Deleplaine, McCall & Co., cotton factory
E. L du Pont, powder-mills
John Gregg, warehouse
Joshua and Thomas Gilpin paper factory
Job Harvey's Est., wharf and store
George Hodgson's Est., mill seat
Edward Hamilton's Est., tavern
Caleb Harlan's Est., old "White Horse Tavern"
Caleb Kirk, grist and barley-mills
Thomas Lea, Jr., grist-mill
Thomas Lea's Est., cotton factory
Evan Lewis, tan-yard
Joshua Lobb, grist and saw-mills
John Morton's Est., grist-mill
Morton, Canby & Co., barley-mills
John McCalmont's Est., wharf and store
McLane & Milligan cotton factory
Thomas and William Morrison, malt-house
McLane & Hersey, tan-yard
Charles Plumley, tavern
James Philips, grist and saw-mill
Joseph Richardson, grist-mill
Jonathan J. Robinson, wharf and store
Samuel and Joseph Shipley, grist-mill
Thomas Seal, tan-yard
Caleb Sherward, brew-house
Joshua Strand, piaster-mill
Thomas Springer, tavern
William Twaddle, tavern
Edward Worrell, wharf and store
James Webb, tan-yard
Benjamin Wade, tan-yard

After a lapse of more than thirty years a great many of the foregoing industries had ceased to exist, and others had passed under new management. But if the number of the establishments was less, the product and value were far greater on account of the improved machinery and better methods employed. The manufacturing interests became the most important factors in the industrial history of the community and have ever since so continued.

In 1854 the most important industries were:

Alexander H. Adams, grist-mill
Chas. L du Pont Est., Rokeby Factory
Henry Clay Factory; barley mill
Squirrel Run Mill
Wm. E. Garrett, two snuff-mills
Samuel Richardson, grist and saw-mills
Joseph Bancroft, Rockford Cotton Mill, 28 Tenements
E. I. du Pont A Co., Upper Powder Mills, 25 Tenements
Hagley Powder Mill, 28 Tenements
Riddle & Lawrence cotton factory, 52 Tenements

Most of these are now classed as industries on "Brandywine Bank," and are elsewhere specially mentioned.

At Rockland, Caleb Kirk began his improvements about 1795, building the large stone mansion near the grist- mill in 1797. The fulling-mill on Wilson's Run had been built by Thomas Hollingsworth at an earlier period. The saw-mill was on the site of the present Le Carpentier grist-mill. In the course of years the Kirk grist-mill was sold to the Young family who operated it in connection with their interests on the other side of the Brandy wine a number of years, but finally turned it to other uses. About 1812 Caleb Kirk put up a cotton factory, higher up on Wilson's Run, and operated the same eight or ten years. Subsequently this stone building was used as a tin-smith shop, large quantities of ware being there made. It is still standing on the Le Carpentier place, serving as a farm building. This was one of the first cotton factories in the State, but was unfavorably located for extensive business.

William Wilson's old saw-mill, built in the last century, was more than a mile up the Run. About 1885 Jesse Chandler put up a new mill which was soon after burned down, In 1854 Alexander H. Adams had a grist-mill at the site, which is still standing, as the property of the du Pont family. The water power being weak, it has a small capacity.

For its volume Red Clay Creek affords a number of excellent powers, which were improved and utilized soon after the settlement of that section of the hundred. One of the oldest sites in Christiana is that which has so long been the property of the Garrett family. As early as 1749 John Garrett, Jr., was granted title to some of this land, by the will of his father, while another son, Thomas, in the same way, became the owner of property in Mill Creek Hundred. In 1771 this mill is spoken of as being near John Garrett's, on the Okesson Road." Since 1782 the for-mer has been employed to operate snuff mills, and from a small beginning, on the site of the old mill, have grown the extensive works, operated in 1887, as the business of Wm. E. Garrett & Sons. The property extends half a mile along the creek, from Yorklyn Station down the stream, and the buildings were erected as business increased. In 1846, No. 1 mill was built of stone three stories high, but has been re-modeled and much improved since that time. What is now known as Mill No. 4, on the lower site, a four-story stone building was erected in 1849, the brick addition being built at a later day. No. 2 mill was put up in 1874, and No. 4 in 1884. Both are four stories high, the latter being of brick. Nos. 1, 2 and 3 are all connected, and, since 1874, the water power has been supplemented by steam. In 1872 shipping facilities were offered at Yorklyn, by the Western Railroad, (completed that year) and, since 1884, goods have been loaded at the warehouse at the mills, from which a siding was built to the main track. Like facilities are afforded at the lower mill. Since January, 1857, the manager of the upper mill has been Israel Durham, and J. L. Press, manager of the lower mills, having succeeded William Press. The mills are supplied with improved machinery for manufacturing cut snuff, which has a high reputation in the home and foreign markets. The plant also embraces several mansions and tenements and the property is kept in excellent order.

Above Garrett's is a manufacturing site called Auburn, and also formerly known as Pusey's Mills, foe spinning cotton. After the late war the property passed into the hands of William Clark, who operated the mill on woolen yams, working in connection with Henry Clark's mills, in Mill Creek Hundred. In 1869 the mill was destroyed by fire and has not been rebuilt. The plant also included a number of substantial tenements.

At Ashland Station, below Garrett's, is a grist-mill, which includes a part of a building put up in 1715. A stone mansion nearby, it is believed, was built the same year, while the brick house on the hill was erected by W. & M. Gregg in 1737. At that time they also owned the mill. Later owners were B. Philips and John C. Philips, but since 1862 the property has belonged to A. & J. D. Sharpless. In 1883 the mill was supplied with roller machinery.

Lower down the creek, and at the lowest seat on the stream, on the Christiana side, is the old grist-mill of Joshua Lobb, which was also long owned by the Speakman family. James Wilson is the present owner. The mill has been enlarged, but is confined to custom work. A machine-shop formerly carried on at this place has been abandoned.

Near the mouth of Burris Bun Hayes Graves is the owner of a saw-mill, which occupies an old site; and higher up the same stream, near the Pennsylvania line, W. Passmore has built a grist-mill within recent years. A site still higher up has been vacated.

The old Dixon Mill, on Dixon's Bun, a very aged structure, is still used in a small way as the property of the Edwin Griffith estate; and on Mill Creek remains the time-honored landmark of Richardson's Mill, for more than a century the property of that family. Its capacity is also small.

Business Interests

The business interests of the hundred, outside of Newport, and what is now comprised within the limits of Wilmington, are confined to a few small villages, of which Centreville is the most important. It has a very pleasant location, on the Kennett Pike, seven miles from Wilmington, on a tract of land said to be the highest in the State. There are a number of fine residences, a good public hall, several stores and an inn. In the locality are houses of worship belonging to the Friends and the Presbyterians, and some old mansions, on highly improved farms, this being one of the richest sections of the hundred.

Centreville was an active business point sixty years ago, and had in 1821 a good store, kept by James Delaplaine, who prospered there as a merchant. William Todd and Ezekiel Bailey each had good inns; and there were mechanics of all kinds, among them being John McCullough, blacksmith; Benjamin Hollingsworth and Bernard Dalton, carpenters; Joseph Hollingsworth, wheelwright; John Kitchen, stone mason; Levi Walker and Henry Jeffers, farmers; and George Matson, drover.

The inns were taxed to their uttermost to accommodate all the guests, as many as fifty teams stopping in one night. Liquor was freely used, and also sold at the store to the extent of a wagon-load per week. The Bailey stand has been discontinued, but where William and (later) Rebecca Todd entertained the public, stands a hotel remodeled and enlarged by James Lancaster. An early innkeeper at this place was a member of the Twaddle family. Near the State line Charles Twaddle was the keeper of a public house, which has long since been closed, but was a long time famous as the "Delaware and Pennsylvania Inn."

At the Delaplaine stand Thomas Dalton engaged in trade in 1846, and continued until 1877, when he removed to his present place of business, in Odd Fellows' Hall. He is now (1888) one of the oldest merchants in the county, and is also the postmaster of the Centreville office.

In 1887 W. C. B. Colquhoun was the druggist of the village and Dr. J. H. Chandler the resident physician. His predecessors in this profession were Doctors J. P. Chandler, George Hamilton and a number of others for short periods, some of them also eminent practitioners.

On the Kennett Pike, below Centreville, was the "Blue Ball Inn," a well-known hostelry in the early part of the century, which was long kept by the Hamilton family. It was removed, after the era of travel on the turnpike, and a farm-house marks its site. The "Buck Tavern," lower down the road, where Peter Hendrickson long dispensed hospitality, has also passed away; and the "Columbus Inn," on the same road, is within the present limits of Wilmington.

At Du Pout's Works goods have been sold by Andrew Fontaine, Jonathan Shipley, James Bratten and Victor Sterling. Since 1866 merchandising in connection with his business at the old hotel and store-stand of William S. Fleming, where he has traded since 1875. This old building is a landmark, and was enlarged to its present size in 1820. Lower down the creek, and near Wilmington, is Rising Sun, a locality which took its name from the old public-house of Patrick Higgins, long kept at that point. It was converted into a residence and a more pretentious inn opened, which is known as the ''Jefferson House," and having Thomas Toy as the proprietor. In this manufacturing village several stores are maintained, and mail facilities are afforded by the Henry Clay post-office, which was established at the factory of that name. It was long kept at the drug-store of John Wood, but since 1886 Timothy McCarthy has been the postmaster, keeping the office at his place of business. Nearer the city is the suburbs of Highlands, on a commanding tract of land, platted into town lots by the Brinckle family. The first residence was here put up in 1873 by John S. Miller.

Above the clustering hamlets along the Brandywine is Greenville, a post-office and station on the W. and N. R. R., where it crosses the Kennett Pike. The office was established in 1871 with W. R. Brinckle as postmaster, who also engaged in business at this point as a coal and lumber dealer. In 1887 Charles Green was associated with him in carrying on this trade. A similar business at Silver Brook has been carried on since 1882 by C. F. White & Bros.

On the Western Railroad post-offices are maintained at Ashland, J. D. Sharpless, postmaster, and at Yorklyn, at the store of E. H. Dennison, who succeeded James W. Robinson in trade at Auburn Mills. Other parties had merchandized at this place; and in other localities of the hundred small places of business have been established which have not attained the character of a hamlet.

Lodges

Centerville Lodge, No, 37, I. O. O. F. This society received its charter December 10, 1874, and was formally instituted June, 13, 1875, with the following principal officers: N. G., Francis Green; V. G., Joseph Pyle; R. S., George W. Ely; F. S., Dr. Joseph H. Chandler: Treas., Wm. Carpenter.

At the first meeting six persons applied for member-ship, and five months later the number belonging had been increased to sixty-one persons. The lodge has had a flourishing existence reporting one hundred and thirteen members in 1886, when the aggregate belonging has reached one hundred and sixty-two. Its finances have always been on a good basis, more than four thousand dollars being invested for the good of the order, and about three thousand dollars have been paid for sick benefits. The principal officers are: Dr. J. Harvey Day, Noble Grand; Benard Dalton, F. S.; Dr. Chandler and A. B. Entriken, trustees.

The meetings are held in the third-story of Center-ville Hall, a brick edifice twenty-eight by forty-five feet, erected in 1876, at a cost of five thousand dollars, by an association formed for this purpose. The second-story of this building forms a public hall, and the lower floor is used for business purposes. The directing members of the Association in 1887, were Joseph H. Chandler, J. Paulson Chandler, A. B. Entriken, Wm. L. Dilworth, James L. Carpenter and James Dilworth.

Washington Conclave, I. O. of H., was instituted in the above hall, February 22, 1886, with twenty-one members. In 1887, there were thirty-five persons belonging, having as officers: James H. Carpenter, A. W. Wilson, W. S. Talley, W. C. R. Colquhoun, B. Dalton, A. B. Entriken, Joseph H. Chand-ler and J. Harvey Day. This order is purely beneficiary.

Center Orange, No, 11, P. of H., was organized at Centerville, fifteen years ago and has maintained regular meetings ever since. In this period there have been seasons of growth and declining interest, but in 1887 there were thirty members and the affairs were in good condition. Meetings were held in Centerville Hall.

Eagle Lodge, No, 36, I. O. O. F, was instituted at du Pout's Mills, under a charter granted December 15, 1874, to the following persons, William Allison, Jonas W. Miller, James A. Stirling, Robert Gamble, Samuel Kelley, Wm. R. Wood, Samuel J. Davis, John Ball, Jr., John Q. Stirling, John Rumer, Neal Conley, Joseph Knox.

In 1887 it had a vigorous membership, and was on a good basis financially. This Lodge is an off shoot of Brandywine Lodge, No. 18, I. O. O. F. which was instituted lower down the creek in October, 1847. Its meetings have been regularly maintained since that period, and the membership has generally been large. In 1887 the number reached one hundred and fifty-two, the majority of whom were in good standing. Since 1871 the meetings have been held in a spacious, well-furnished lodge-room, which is also occupied by other societies. The Lodge has a fund of three thousand six hundred dollars, and has been an important social factor in the community. The trustees in 1887 were Sam'l Moore, Rob't Printer and Henry Stewart.

Here, also, was held the meeting of Union Encampment, No. 7, which yielded up its organization in 1878, although having at that time twenty-one members. Its dissolution was caused by simple lack of interest and nearness to Wilmington.

Du Pont Lodge, No. 29, A. F. & A. M., was instituted under a warrant granted October 4, 1876, and had as its First Master, John Taylor. Other Past Masters are: James Fisher, William H. Miller, John S. Miller, John Q. Stirling and B. F. Sheppard. The lodge has prospered, and had fifty members in 1887.

Wawaset Tribe, No. 9, I. O. of R. M., was instituted July 19, 1871, with eighteen charter members, and the following principal officers: G. H. Dugdale, R. O. Green leaf, John Gardner, S. J. Davis, James A. Stirling and John Q. Stirling.

The meetings are held in Odd Fellows Hall, and the Tribe has prospered. In 1887 there were sixty members.

Brandywine Lodge, No, 15, K. of P., was instituted in Brandywine Hall, July 11, 1872. For several years the Lodge prospered, but a lack of interest following the meetings were discontinued, and the charter surrendered. There were about thirty members.

Religious Interests

The earliest organized religious effort was made by the Friends. Some of the first members of the Newark Meeting in Brandywine Hundred, lived in Christiana and were regular attendants of those meetings until 1687. In that year George Harlan and others petitioned to have a meeting on the west side of the stream, in winter, on account of the "dangerousness of the ford," which they would have to cross. In 1690 the Meeting established a short time previously became permanent, and in 1708 a small wooden church was built for its accommodation. Monthly Meetings had also been established, and alternated with Newark until they were then abandoned, when they were held in connection with Kennett Square, and, in later years, with Hockessin. In 1794 the need of a larger and better meeting-house caused the members to unite their subscriptions to build the same, as follows:

Name, £, s.
Bumford Dawes 6
James Phillips 6
William Walter 20
Emmon Jeffers 6
Caleb Kirk 20
Samuel Gregg 15
William Wilson 6
James Armstrong 3 15
Samuel Nichols 15
James Bryan 10
Christopher Hollingsworth 7 10
Richard Meredith 6
Thomas Chandler 30
Amor Hollingsworth 3
Jacob Graves 15
William Hicklen 15
Joseph Pierson 1 10
Stephen Logue 15
Thomas Hollingsworth 11 5
Daniel Nichols 7 10
Thomas Wilson 7 10
Jemima Stanley 15

Six acres of land were deeded by Alphonso Kirk for the use of the Meeting, upon part of which was built, in 1796, a brick house, thirty by forty feet, which is still standing, in good condition.

The graveyard was improved in 1857, and 1873, and is also in good order, being enclosed by a very substantial stone wall. On the eastern part of the grounds a log school building was put up before 1800, which was replaced with a stone structure in 1818. This was in use until 1854, when the present school-house was erected, being at that time one of the best in the Stat-e. A generous Frenchman, Antonia Bidderman, donated one thousand dollars for the erection of this building, being moved thereto by local pride and his interest in the cause of general education.

For many years the meetings at the Centre were the occasions of much edification and large attendance, embracing, in 1821, thirty-nine families. In each succeeding year the members became less in numbers, owing to deaths and changes in population, until, in 1887, but a few families remained. The monthly meetings were permanently discontinued in 1884.

The Lower Brandywine Presbyterian Church has a history as an organized body which is antedated only by that of the Friend's Centre Meeting. Its origin can be distinctly traced back to 1720, when the Presbyterian Synod, assembled in Philadelphia, was asked to supply preaching for "some people in and about Birmingham, upon the Brandy wine,'' and when the Bev. Daniel McGill was instructed to preach to this people as he in "Christian prudence" should find occasion.

The Birmingham here spoken of is the southwest township of Delaware County, Penna., where the first meeting-house was built. For this purpose a tract of land was purchased, October 15, 1720, and a deed therefor executed to ''John Kirkpatrick, James Houston, James Mole, William Smith, Magnus Simonson, Ananias Higgins, John Heath, members of the Presbyterian Meeting in Birmingham." The house stood near the foot of what was formerly called "Bald Hill," and was of hewed logs. Nearby was a good spring, which may have had something to do in the selection of this spot, being a matter of great convenience for the congregation during the noon hour. The house stood until 1773, and possibly later, the exact time of its removal being unknown. A part of the half acre lot was used for burial purposes, and an interment was made there as late as 1820. It has since become neglected.

In the course of fifty years the church had become dilapidated and too small to accommodate the congregation, many of the members of which lived on the west side of the Brandywine, while the meeting-house, as has been stated, was on the east side of the stream. The question of building a new house being agitated, very naturally the people on the west side of the Brandywine, being in the majority, desired to have the house erected in their midst or at least to share honors with the old site and to have new houses built in each locality. Neither proposition was accepted by the minority and the question of building was a matter of controversy more than three years. In this period many of the members connected themselves with the churches at Wilmington. In the meantime the pastor left and the church was without a regular service several years, which had the effect of still more dispersing the members, and it became apparent that if the organization was to be preserved a new house of worship must be provided. Accordingly it was determined to build on the west side of the Brandywine, and within the bounds of the State of Delaware. This purpose not being approved by the adherents to the old site, that interest soon declined and the old church passed out of existence as a place of worship about 1773.

In August, 1774, the distinctive history of the present Lower Brandywine Church had its beginning. On the 22d of August of that year Jeremiah Smith deeded not quite two acres of land to John Bratten, George Craghead and John Armstrong, as trustees for the congregation, and the work of building a new house of worship was begun. It was a small log building, but for many years accommodated the congregation which could not have had more than forty members when it was completed. There was no means of heating the house, and those attending had nothing but the fervor of the minister's discourse to keep them warm. After 1885 the church was weather boarded and plastered, thus being made more comfortable and inviting. It continued in use until the fall of 1861, when the new edifice having been erected it was taken down and used in building horse sheds, but the ruins of its foundation may still be seen.

The movement to build a new church was begun April 15, 1859, when a meeting to determine this purpose was held. The project was received with so much favor that it was "Resolved that the trustees be authorized to proceed immediately to have a new church erected, and that the following persons be appointed a building committee: John Brannen, David Martin, Peter W. Gregg, Samuel Armstrong, Reece Pyle, William Armstrong, J. Paulson Chandler, James L. Deleplain." Work progressed so rapidly that the corner-stone was laid September 1, 1859, and the dedication followed November 8, 1860. It is a plain but substantial brick building, seating four hundred people, and has basement accommodations for Sunday-school and lecture purposes. The cost of the structure was five thousand dollars exclusive of the labor performed by the congregation, which at the time did not number more than twenty persons. The liberal donation of a Mrs. Gamble aided much to complete the Sabbath-school rooms of the church, a means which has greatly promoted the welfare of the congregation, which was one hundred and fifty-nine members strong, in 1887. The Sunday-school had a membership of two hundred and ninety-eight at the same time.

At a later period a parsonage was provided near the church on three acres of land, and other improvements made. June 1887, the property was in charge of trustees Frederick Klair, George I. Fen n, George K. Woodward, William Carpenter, Henry Chandler and Milliard F. Day.

The Rev. Robert Cathcart appears to have been the first pastor of the church, beginning his ministry in November, 1730, serving also the congregation at Middletown, and continued about eleven years. A vacancy in the pulpit followed, the only preaching being by supplies until April 18, 1769, when the Rev. Joseph Smith was ordained pastor. But owing to the division of the congregation on account of the dissensions arising from the inability to agree upon a church site, this pastorate was continued only a little more than three years.

After preaching was established in the new church, in Christiana Hundred, Mr. Smith again became the pastor and continued until April, 1778. A short vacancy ensued when the Rev. Wm. R. Smith be-came the pastor of the Lower Brandywine and Wilmington churches, ministering to the latter only after October, 1785. For a number of years there was no pastor, and the congregation had become so weak that its existence was with difficulty sustained; and the preaching was by supplies, the Rev. Alexander Mitchell, filling the pulpit most frequently.

In September, 1801 the Rev. Thomas Grier, entered upon a pastorate of the Lower Brandywine and Middletown Churches, and was pastor and supply a little more than seven years. In the fall of 1809, the Rev. Nathaniel R. Snowden, became the stated sup-ply, and so ministered several years. He was succeeded by a regular pastor, the Rev. Samuel Henderson, who was installed in November, 1813. This pastorate was terminated in less than a year.

A period of ten years now ensued in which there was no regular minister and, consequently, a dearth of spiritual matters. The Rev. James Taylor, next preached, serving in an independent connection. But in December, 1825, the Rev. Thomas Love be-came the pastor of the church, in connection with the congregation in Red Clay, and entered upon a ministry which was productive of much good. In 1828, the Presbytery of New Castle met with the church, and was entertained the first time in its history without ardent spirits. This was a bold departure from a long honored old custom, but the ladies of the church furnished an acceptable substitute in the tea which they provided, some of the presbyters testifying that "they never left a meeting with better feelings." From this time on temperance sentiment had an assured and steady growth. Closely connected with this feeling was the revival of 1831, which augmented the membership of the church to more than double its former proportions. In 1832, twenty-six more persons were added to the church. Mr. Love's pastorate continued until October, 1856, and was one of the longest and most eventful in the history of the church.

For a period of four years the pulpit was supplied, but in March, 1861, the Rev. David W. Moore be-came the pastor, beginning a ministry which added many members to the church, and more firmly established its temporal affairs. His pastoral relation was dissolved October 15, 1872, and for several months the pulpit was again supplied. In May, 1878, the Rev. George E. Jones was installed pastor, and acceptably filled that position until July, 1877. After an interval of a few months the Rev. Robert Graham, became the settled minister, and served from the fall of 1877, until October, 1883. Again the pulpit was supplied a short period, but since May, 1884, the pastor has been the Rev. T. R. McDowell under whose ministry the church continues to prosper.

The Ruling Elders of the church have been the following:

James Houston
James McCorkle
George Creaghead
John Augustus
John Armstrong
John Boughman
William Houston
John McMinn
Peter Hendrickson
Alexander McMullin
William Armstrong
Benjamin Chandler
Thomas Sterling
John Nixon
James Delaplain
J. Poulson Chandler
Peter W. Gregg
James M. Brackin
William Bratten
James Leach
John B. Barney
John Armstrong
George I. Fenn
Jacob Chandler
Geo. K. Woodward
Wm. Wilson

Lower Brandywine has had many seasons of growth, followed by corresponding ones of decline, but has outlived its vicissitudes, and although other churches of like faith have been established within the bounds of its original territory, it is today a strong, vigorous body, whose promise for usefulness in the future cannot be fairly estimated, but whose outlook is beneficent in the highest degree.

Green Hill Presbyterian Church was organized under the direction of the New Castle Presbytery, June 5, 1849. At the same time Alexander Stephens, John Wood and James Scanlan were elected ruling elders; and John McCartney and John Keowan deacons. Bat before this, Presbyterian meetings had been held in this neighborhood by the Rev. S. M. Gayley and others. The former became the first pastor, serving in connection with the Rockland Church, and remained the minister until 1851. Through his efforts the church building was begun, and the comer stone laid November 15, 1848. But the edifice was not completed for several years, and the dedication did not take place until September 14, 1851, when the dedicatory sermon was preached by the Rev. G. I. Moore. The church is a commodious brick structure, and was erected under the supervision of John Wood, Alexander Stephens, James Stephens, John Peoples, Joseph Hendrickson, Taylor Crosby and Peter Gregg, who were, also, the first trustees of the Green Hill Cemetery, which became an incorporated body, by an act of the Legislature February 9, 1849. The grounds embrace three acres, situated a short distance from the Kennett Pike, two miles from Wilmington. The church has a central location in the cemetery, which contains many graves. Near by a parsonage was provided, at a later day, and the entire property is valued at twenty thousand dollars. In 1887 it was in charge of trustees J. Q. Stirling, S. F. Stirling, Robert Printer, Samuel Frizzell, Wm. H. Miller, Samuel Moore and J. M. Smyth.

The members of the session at the same time were W. H. Oliver, J. Q. Stirling, W. H. Miller, Andrew Fleming, John Moore and James Smyth; and other elders have been Hugh Stirling, William Nevin and Robert Magee. The trustees and ruling elders also attend to the affairs of the Rockland Church, which is now practically a preaching station of Green Hill, and for more than thirty years has had the same ministerial service. In 1851 the Rev. S. M. Gayley was succeeded by the Rev. W. C. Windle, who was pastor three years. In 1855 the Rev. A. Tudehope supplied the pulpit. From 1856 to 1863 the Rev. James Otterson was the pastor. The Rev. H. B. Scott occupied the same relation from 1864 to 1869. In November of the same year the Rev. G. L. Moore entered upon a ministry which continued until 1883, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Hugh K. Walker, who was pastor eighteen months. Since April, 1886, the pastor has been the Rev. J. C. Lenhard. In the fall of 1884 the church was visited with a revival of unusual interest, which resulted in fifty-four additions to the church membership. In June, 1887, the members numbered one hundred and sixty, forming an active progressive body. From the ranks of the church have gone as ministers the Revs. James Roberts and Henry Rumer, who have rendered effective service in other fields of labor.

Ebenezer Baptist Church was erected in the south-western part of the hundred, more than half a century ago. The society which occupied it became extinct many years ago, and Union meetings or general religious exercises were afterwards held in the same house. About thirty years later the building was placed in the hands of a board of trustees, authorized for this purpose, who sold the building, and it was removed. The burial-ground on which it stood is still used by that community.

Mt. Salem Methodist Episcopal Church was founded at Riddle's Bank, on the Brandywine, in 1847, and the first meetings were held in the old Lyceum building. James Riddle was one of the early members and also a local preacher, an office which was shared by Franklin Supplee. John Miller, Jesse Elliott, William Henderson, Samuel Pierce, William Hart and William Henderson also belonged to the first classes. William Wier became connected soon after. Besides the preaching by the local men named above, a shipwright by the name of Kirkman, in the employ of Harlan & Hollingsworth, frequently preached and later came the Rev. Boswell and the regular appointees by Conference. In 1865 the charge became independent, and the ministers since that period have been the following:

Rev. W. S. Pugh 1865
Rev. O. W. Landreth 1866
Rev. John D. Rigg 1868
Rev. Geo. D. Watson 1871
Rev. John France 1873
Rev. John W. Weston1 1875
Rev. Charlee F. Sheppard 1877
Rev. O. L. Tomkinson 1880
Rev. J. Edward Smith 1888
Rev. B. C. Jones 1886

In 1847 the congregation erected its first house of worship, on the beautiful elevation overlooking the city of Wilmington, which appropriately received the name of Mount Salem. It was a two-story structure of stone and stood until it was taken down in 1878, when a new edifice took its site, the same year. The latter was built under the direction of a committee composed of John Macklan, Levi Garrett, William Maine and Lee T. Archer. It was a very fine building, but, unfortunately, was destroyed by fire in February, 1879, three months from the time it was completed. Although a loss of twelve thousand dollars was sustained, the work of restoration was at once begun, and June 14, 1879, the present fine church was dedicated, a worthy memorial to the devotion and perseverance of the membership of the congregation, who again expended about thirteen hundred dollars. In rebuilding, the tower of the old church was used, but the structure is almost wholly new and is one of the most substantial edifices of the kind in the county. The interior is beautifully finished and very inviting. In 1887 the property was controlled by trustees William Buck, Richard Brown, Hiram H. Cloud, George Walker, John W. Haley, John Benson, Morris Lutton, John Larker and John S. Miller. These serve as an incorporated body, under an act of the Legislature, and also control the fine cemetery on the opposite side of the church. It was opened for burial purposes in the latter part of 1852, and the first person there interred was Ellen McCartney, who died January 1, 1853. Since that time it has become so rapidly filled that it has been found necessary to enlarge it. On part of this ground stands a good parsonage.

Connected with the general work of the church are the missionary efforts at Riddle Chapel and Centre-ville, giving it a wide field of labor as well as making the church an important factor in the religious history of the county. Although having had many seasons of especial interest, the great revival in the fall of 1848 is still remembered as being of unusual importance. Before its close, in December, ninety-four persons were added to the membership of the church, and its spirituality was greatly promoted. At this time the Rev. John Talley was the minister.

Riddle's Chapel was built by the Rev. James Riddle for the benefit of the people residing at Riddle's Banks, who could not conveniently attend worship at Mount Salem. Before his death he endowed it with a perpetual annuity of one hundred dollars and made a like provision for Mount Salem, making the water right of the Banks liable for the payment of the same. In addition to the occasional preaching in the chapel, a Sunday-school is regularly maintained, which has had as superintendents Samuel Pierce and Richard Brown.

Christ Church, Protestant Episcopal, had its origin in a school established in 1816 by E. I. du Pont and his daughter, Mrs. Bauduy. A building was put up near the powder-mills, in which both secular and religious instruction was imparted on the Sabbath to the youth of that community with such satisfactory results that the school was made a legal body. On the 29th of January, 1817, it was incorporated as the "Brandywine Manufacturers' Sunday-school," with a board of trustees composed of E. I. du Pont, Robert McCall, John D. Carter, Charles I. du Pont, George Hodgson, Peter Hendrickson and William Huston. The purpose of the incorporation was declared to be "To not only promote the instruction of the youth in manufacturing establishments in the first rudiments of learning, but that Sunday-schools conduced greatly to their good and orderly behavior, by preventing them from spending the Sabbath in idleness and contracting habits of vice and immorality." Although this school was conducted without sectarian bias, the forms of the Episcopal Church were gradually adopted; and later regular church services were established by the Rev. Samuel C. Brinckle, whose home was near Wilmington. Following his preaching was the confirmation. May 2, 1852, of the first class of catechumens, consisting of seven persons, who in this manned became the first members of the school. The ordinance of confirmation was administered by Bishop Alfred Lee. A few years later a church edifice was erected on the du Pont property, which was opened for Divine service in 1856. This building was repaired and very much beautified in 1876. A comfortable rectory was also provided by the du Pont family, and a regular parish created. The Rev. Samuel C. Brinckle was the first rector, preaching almost to the time of his death, in 1863.

In the spring of that year he was succeeded by the Rev. William A. Newbold, whose rectorship continued until the fall of 1869. The following spring the Rev. I. N. Stanger became the rector, and served in that relation about three years, being succeeded, in the latter part of November, 1873, by the Rev. Dudley D. Smith, whose ministry has since been continued.

In 1887 the parish had one hundred and thirty-eight members, the following sustaining an official relation: A. L. Foster and James Conley, wardens; H. A. du Pont, William du Pont, John Conley, Neal Conley, Henry Brown, William R. Wood and William R. Green, vestrymen. A flourishing Sabbath-school is still maintained.

St. Joseph's Church, Roman Catholic The missionary efforts of that zealous priest, Father P. Ken-ney, extended to the neighborhood of Brandywine Banks more than sixty years ago, and in 1828 the first Mass was here said by him at the house of Madam Victor du Pont. Though Catholic services were occasionally thereafter held in that locality, a number of years elapsed before a church was built. But, in 1841, through the efforts of P. N. Brennan and others, aided by the generous donations of the du Pont family, the present church edifice was erected; and soon thereafter a school-house and pastor's residence, standing on either side of the church, were added to the property. At different periods the church grounds have been enlarged until they embrace several acres, a part of which was set aside for a residence for the Sisters who should take charge of the school. For a number of years this school has been well attended and has been in charge of the Sisters of St. Francis. It has materially advanced the interests of the parish, which had, in June, 1887, a membership of nearly one thousand persons.

The priests of the parish have been the following: 1846 till September 20, 1867, Father J. S. Walsh; 1867 till 1869, Father J. Scanlan; April, 1869, till March, 1887, Father Georgius J. Kelley; since May, 1887, Father Peter Donaghy. The affairs of the parish are in a very flourishing condition. The church has recently been placed in good repair and enlarged, and the area of the cemetery increased by the addition of two acres.

St. Patrick's Church, Roman Catholic, is near Ashland Station, in the southwestern part of the hundred. The grounds embrace seven acres of well-located land, two of which were donated by Michael Mullin and Michael Kane. A portion of it has been consecrated to the dead. The church is a neat frame building, thirty-four by sixty feet, with basement, and was dedicated October 10, 1881. The priests house adjoining was completed the same season. The entire property has a value of eight thousand dollars, and its existence is due to the labors of Father Peter Donaghy, who established Catholic services in this locality in 1880, there being at that time but a few families of that faith in this region. He served as priest of the new parish (embracing St. John's at Hockessin and St. Patrick's) until May, 1887, when he was succeeded by the present priest, Father Francis Farney. Fifty families contributed to the support of the interests of the parish.

The Ferris Reform School, This institution is located in a beautiful section of the hundred, four miles from the court-house in Wilmington. It was established through the liberality of John Ferris, of that city, who died September 2, 1882, leaving an estate valued at nearly one-fourth of a million of dollars, much of which was devised for benevolent purposes. His benefaction to the Reform School was the residue of the estate, and was entrusted to Dr. Caleb Harlan, to be applied at his discretion "to aid in establishing what is known mostly as a House of Refuge, or place for bettering wayward juveniles," and amounted to eighty-three thousand eight hundred and twenty-three dollars. Realizing the importance of the trust, which the confidence of his friend had placed in his hands, Dr. Harlan wisely sought and obtained the advice and co-operation of the follow-ing citizens, to aid him in carrying out the provisions of the bequest: Lewis Thompson, Samuel N. Pusey, Dr. Lewis P. Bush, Allen Gawthrop, David W. Harlan, Henry C. Robinson and Leonard E. Wales. The latter prepared the excellent charter for the school. This committee held its first meeting March 27, 1884, and its work was entirely of an advisory nature.

In order to place the matter upon a more permanent basis, Dr. Harlan had The Ferris Reform School incorporated by legislative enactment March 10, 1885, forty-eight persons being named as incorporators. These organized under the terms of the charter April 15th the same year, and selected the following board of officers and managers:

President, Caleb Harlan, M.D.;
Vice-Presidents, Leonard E. Wales, J. Taylor Clause;
Treasurer, Henry C. Robinson;
Secretary, David W. Harlan;
Managers, Caleb Harlan, M. D., Lewis P. Bush, M.D., Edward Betts, Thomas Bird, Joseph L. Carpenter, Jr., Allen Gawthrop, J. Taylor Gause, George Gray, David W. Harlan, Job H. Jackson, William C. Lodge, Samuel N. Pusey, William T. Porter, Henry C. Robinson, Lewis Thompson, Stransbury J. Willey, Leonard E. Wales and Alfred D. Warner, the mayor of the City of Wilmington, the judge of the Superior Court resident in New Castle County, and the president of the Levy Court of New Castle County, ex-offico.

By-laws were also adopted and provision made for securing a site for a home, and to open the same at an early day. Some difficulty was experienced in securing a proper location, until "Woodside," the country-seat of Philip Quigley, was placed on the market, when it was purchased, and it has been found admirably adapted for the purpose. The farm contains one hundred and ninety acres of choice land, on which were spacious buildings, with accommodations for fifty inmates. Appliances have since been furnished, and new buildings erected to increase the conveniences of the home, so that it lacks but a few things of being a first-class institution of that nature.

The home was opened for the reception of inmates January 1, 1886, and before the close of the year had seventeen inmates, consisting of lads between the ages of nine and sixteen years, and of both colors. Newton Chandler was placed in charge as superintendent, and Mary E. Chandler as matron; and under their supervision the school has been admirably conducted. In the government of the institution the merit system is successfully used, and has been the means of appealing to the better purposes of the in-mates, whose connection with the school has been generally beneficial. Instruction in the school-room is imparted ten months in the year, and light manual labor is added to give proper physical development. The future of Ferris Reform School promises to reflect great honor upon the memory of the generous founder, and to be a source of much benefit to the county fortunate enough to have it located in its midst as one of its public institutions.

Footnotes:
1. It will be remembered that Wilmington and Newport was at that time within the limits of the Hundred.

New Castle County

Source: History of Delaware, 1609-1888, Volume I, by J. Thomas Scharf, L. J. Richards & Company, Philadelphia, 1888.

 
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